Account abstraction has been a hotly discussed topic in the Ethereum community recently, particularly on Twitter after Devcon Bogota. But what exactly is it and why has it garnered so much attention? Let’s explore.

You may have also heard that zkSync, as well as other Layer 2 solutions like StarkNet, have announced their developments in account abstraction. But what exactly is account abstraction, and why is it considered a game-changer for the adoption of cryptocurrencies?

What is Account Abstraction?

Account abstraction is a paradigm shift in the way assets are held on blockchains. In traditional blockchain systems, assets are typically held by externally-owned wallets, which are controlled by private keys. With account abstraction, assets are held exclusively by smart contracts, which can be programmed to have specific capabilities and behaviors. This allows for a more flexible way of managing accounts, as well as the ability to enable new use cases that were previously not possible.

Ethereum Accounts Under the Hood: EOAs and Contract Accounts

Before diving deeper into account abstraction, it’s important to understand how Ethereum accounts work. In Ethereum, there are two types of accounts: Externally Owned Accounts and Contract Accounts.

Externally Owned Accounts (EOAs)

Externally owned accounts are controlled by private keys and are used for sending transactions.

Contract Accounts

Contract accounts, on the other hand, are controlled by their associated smart contract code and can execute operations based on the code’s conditions.

An abstract account, as the name suggests, is an abstracted version of these two types of accounts. It allows for the creation of new types of accounts with different capabilities, such as the ability to execute specific types of transactions or to implement advanced smart contract functionality. This abstraction of the underlying account structure makes it easier to create and use new types of accounts, enabling new use cases.

Benefits of Account Abstraction

Account abstraction brings several benefits to the Ethereum network, including an improved user experience.

For example, AA enables the implementation of advanced features like social recovery, creating allow deny list of addresses, gasless transactions and multi-signature wallets. These features provide users with increased security and control over their transactions, making it more attractive for businesses and individuals to adopt the Ethereum network.

Multi-signature security, for instance, allows for multiple parties to authorize a transaction, which can be useful for financial institutions and other organizations with high security requirements. Social recovery enables users to recover their accounts in case of loss of private keys with the help of trusted contacts. Rate-limiting prevents malicious actors from overloading the network with too many transactions in a short period of time. Creating allow/deny-list of addresses provides an additional layer of security by allowing only approved addresses to interact with the contract and prevents address poisoning scams.

Overall, account abstraction offers a wide range of benefits including an improved user experience, increased security, and the ability to enable new use cases. These benefits make it a game-changer for the adoption of cryptocurrencies and the Ethereum network.

Proposed EIPs for Account Abstraction

Proposed EIPs for account abstraction are currently being discussed in the Ethereum community and the proposed EIPs are a promising step forward for the future of account abstraction and the Ethereum network.

EIP-4337: “An account abstraction proposal which completely avoids consensus-layer protocol changes, instead relying on higher-layer infrastructure.”

EIP-2938: “EIP-2938 is a specification for one flavor of AA, designed to be fairly simple to implement while allowing new and more powerful features to be developed in the future.”


In conclusion, account abstraction is a game-changer for the adoption Ethereum network. It brings several benefits such as increased security and the ability to enable new use cases. The implementation of smart contract wallets, upgradeability and other advanced features offer a rich user experience, making it more attractive for businesses and individuals to adopt the Ethereum network.

Hüseyin Deniz | Blockchain Developer
Berkut Teknoloji